Professor Bernard's picture

On Population and Labour

By Bernard

Among the resources of the national economy , the main square is occupied by the workforce.
Often , only the negative part is presented : the unemployed and unemployment. Moreover , some say that unemployment is not an economic problem , but social. So consider the entire workforce and we understand a little better the issue of unemployment :

On Labour and Workforce:

  1. The Population and the Workforce<
    1. The Canadian Population
      1. The Population in Canada
      2. The Population in Québec
      3. The Population in Ontario
    2. The Labour Force Survey
    3. The Civilian Population
    4. The Labour Force
    5. On Unemployment
    6. The Inactive Population
  2. The Various Measures of Labour<
    1. The Participation Rate

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2 . The unemployment rate
3 . employment
4 . International comparisons
5 . The sampling error
5 . salaries
1 . The comparative income
2 . Comparative wage
3 . Inequality for women
1 . Additional tasks
2 . A pregnant woman
3 . the stereotype
4 . the salary
5 . Promotions and bonuses
6 . A bibliography on inequality for women
7 . A conclusion on inequality for women
6 . Employment and intergenerational equity
1 . generations
1 . Grandparents
2 . Parents and baby boomers
3 . children
4 . Unborn babies
2 . jobs
3 . Public debt
4 . Public
5 . Work sharing
6 . The retirement
7 . Options in life, according to Kiyosaki
1 . The salaried employee
2 . The self-employed
3 . The business owner
4 . The investor
8 . nurseries
1 . Staff required
2 . Services
3 . Abuse of the system
4 . The limited number of places
5 . Profitability for households
6 . A conclusion on daycare
7 . Figures on childcare
8 . Mediagraphy the child care
9 . Juvenile delinquency
1 . An introduction to crime
2 . The causes of juvenile delinquency
3 . Forms of delinquency
4 . Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
5 . The socio -economic background of offenders
6 . The cost of incarceration
7 . A bibliography on crime
8 . A conclusion on crime
Before turning to the price.
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The unemployment rate
The unemployment rate is the ratio between the number of unemployed and the labor force , multiplied by one hundred. It is calculated by region, sex and age group.
The unemployment rate = number of unemployed / labor force * 100
Note here that the unemployment rate may fall in a recession if the active population ( or labor force participation rate ) decreases when people no longer believe have opportunities to find a job. Also note that the unemployment rate decreases for many educated people .
Rodrigue Tremblay claimed in Les Affaires of 18 December 1999, Statistics Canada uses slightly different from those of the International Labour Organization (ILO) measures. According to Tremblay , the Canadian unemployment in 1998 was 7.6% U.S. GAAP instead of 8.3 % actually announced . This is contrary to the United States , which would use Canadian standards , their rate would have been 4.5 % instead of 4.9 %.
What are these differences?
1 . Statistics Canada considers as unemployed someone who has not actively looked for work but were unemployed for less than 26 weeks and were available for work .
2 . The two countries do not count as unemployed in the personnes1.Qui have lost all hope of finding employment ( +0.9 %) ;
3 . Or those working part-time against their will ( +2.3 %) ;
4 . Or those who expect to be recalled to work on a fixed date.
The Canadian rate would have been 7.6% or 11.5 % depending on the calculation method used .
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employment
The objective of the surveys labor is to study employment, not unemployment. Measures of unemployment are still residues , while measures of employment are central to studies of labor.
According to Marc Pinsonneault, in Les Affaires of 20 November 1999, employment finally found his range in Canada and Quebec. From February to June 1999, Quebec had lost 30,400 jobs against 11,000 for Canada as a whole , during the same period, Ontario had created 9,800 and the rest of Canada 9600, despite the loss of 30,000 jobs in British Columbia because the Asian crisis .
By cons , July-October 1999, Canada would create 176.300 new jobs, including 85,400 in Quebec and 87,700 in Ontario. The sectors in Quebec were :
· The wholesale and retail
· Information, culture and recreation
· Accommodation and catering
· Manufactures
Some of these jobs are part-time. The author concludes by providing an annual increase in jobs in Quebec of about 50,000 over the next two years.
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International comparisons
To determine the rate of unemployment, the United States and Japan, like Canada , use the sampling method of the workforce.
Britain , France and West Germany stick to statistics offices.
Sweden use both methods .
Note that both methods are designed to determine the workforce , which is a residue unemployment.
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The sampling error
Any error of one percent in the estimation of labor can become a mistake one in eight , ten or twelve percent of the unemployed , an error of eight to twelve percent unemployment rate .
Similarly, the risk of error increases when considering regional data.
The sample of five percent (0.5%) may be significant at the Canada or Quebec . But this sample allows a greater risk of error at the metropolitan cities , or regions of Quebec, at the level of the whole country .
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salaries
According to Hélène Bégin in Les Affaires of 4 September 1999, the remuneration tramples Quebec. Indeed , wages rise more slowly than inflation in recent months. The first half of 1999, average weekly earnings rose from $ 569.42 to $ 572.73 in Quebec , for an annual increase of just 0.58 %. Meanwhile , inflation was 2% because of oil . The same date , the Canadian average weekly wage was $ 607.42
Let's see some wages and other income in different countries.
1 . The comparative income
2 . Comparative wage
3 . Inequality for women
1 . Additional tasks
2 . A pregnant woman
3 . the stereotype
4 . the salary
5 . Promotions and bonuses
6 . A bibliography on inequality for women
7 . A conclusion on inequality for women
Before considering the employment and equity between generations.
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The comparative income
Let's see some wages and other income in different countries.
Chart comparing salaries
Chart comparing salaries of executives married with two children , with a gross annual salary of 600,000 French francs in some countries of the common market
Country Purchasing Power Net Income Income Compensation in % Net income after tax
France 100 407 67.8 100
England 93 390 85.0 96
Germany 90 367 59.5 88
Italy 86 375 62.7 92
Belgium 80 294 72 49.0
Netherlands 75 275 45.8 68
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Comparative wage
Different countries can be compared with respect to their production level by assessing the level of average annual wages they pay to their households.
Table annual salaries
Table of annual wages (after taxes and social security deductions) of certain trades in different cities around the world in thousands of Swiss francs
City Teacher laborer and mechanic engineer mechanic Secretary
Abu Dhabi 6.2 3.9 45.4 13.6
Amsterdam 24.7 14.8 36.3 16.7
Athens 15.1 10.6
Bangkok 3.5 1.4 6.4 14.5
Bogota 3.6 2.9 16.1 8.5
Bombay 2.2 0.8 4.4 2.4
Brussels 19.9 17.8 44.3 19.9
Buenos Aires 2.4 19.8 7.1 7.5
Cairo 1.4 1.3 5.9 2.5
Caracas 4.6 4.4 9.1 8.2
Chicago 28.1 27.8 43.7 25.1
Copenhagen 22.9 20.2 57.2 23.5
Jakarta 0.8 1.4 9.6 6.7
Jeddah 22.2 4.9 29.6 18.5
Dublin 23.3 13.4 34.5 13.0
Düsseldorf 30.1 15.9 42.5 22.2
Frankfurt 32.8 17.3 70.2 22.3
Geneva 58.1 26.3 62.8 36.3
Helsinki 23.1 18.1 37.9 18.6
Hong Kong 18.4 10.2 38.6 12.0
Houston 24.6 29.8 62.8 23.3
Istanbul 2.6 5.0 27.3 10.0
Johannesburg 12.4 6.0 18.5 11.5
Kuala Lumpur 6.6 4.1 7.2 15.2
Lagos 0.9 0.5 5.5 2.8
Lisbon 8.8 2.7 8.4 7.7
London 21.2 16.7 35.8 20.7
Los Angeles 40.0 28.8 57.3 25.2
Luxembourg 37.9 15.8 54.2 25.3
Madrid 10.3 18.2 13.1 11.0
Managua 22.2 5.0 31.6 21.5
Manila 2.5 1.3 6.2 1.9
Mexico 2.4 1.8 21.4 4.2
Milan 19.0 12.9 26.4 16.3
Montreal 28.2 23.4 44.7 21.5
Nairobi 2.3 1.5 9.4 5.8
New York 28.2 24.2 49.3 20.0
Nicosia 16.7 8.0 18.3 10.1
Oslo 14.9 15.1 20.5 13.5
Panama 6.8 5.2 23.5 12.9
Paris 19.8 11.2 31.0 18.6
Rio de Janeiro 2.0 1.4 3.8 13.6
Sao Paulo 3.0 1.5 6.0 6.6
Seoul 13.0 6.9 21.6 9.4
Singapore 8.2 3.1 28.6 11.5
Stockholm 20.5 23.3 33.2 18.0
Sydney 21.8 16.6 33.0 16.9
Tel Aviv 8.0 8.2 8.8 16.1
Tokyo 50.3 27.6 75.8 24.2
Toronto 29.8 21.6 31.7 19.0
Vienna 18.2 18.2 38.4 18.6
Zurich 56.7 34.2 80.2 37.1
The lowest income payment to the oldest and least advanced areas: textile , sewing, shoe ... By cons , average wages are the techniques of coal and steel , the second industrial revolution in the nineteenth century .
Finally, the highest salaries go to households of new technologies, such as electronics and cybernetics, although these households do not need more training than households in more traditional sectors, often less!
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Inequality for women
I present the research report

 

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